Complaint Against Dowry Harassment


In India, dowry harassment refers to the act of subjecting a woman to cruelty or harassment by her husband or his family members with the intent to extract dowry. It typically occurs when the groom or his family demands additional dowry or exerts pressure on the bride's family for more dowry before and/or after marriage. These demands may involve money, expensive gifts, property, or other valuable assets. When these demands are not met, it can lead to various forms of harassment, physical abuse, emotional trauma, or even violence against the bride.

In India, the law addressing complaints against dowry harassment is primarily governed by the Dowry Prohibition Act of 1961. The act was introduced to curb the social evil of dowry and the associated harassment and violence faced by married women. It defines dowry as any immovable or movable property, valuable security, or money given or agreed to be given directly or indirectly by the bride's family to the groom or his family as a consideration for the marriage, prohibiting both the giving and receiving of dowry. It envisages certain offenses related to dowry harassment, including demanding dowry, giving or taking dowry, and subjecting the woman to cruelty. The penalties for such offenses include imprisonment for up to five years and a fine of up to Rs. 15,000 or the value of dowry, whichever is higher. 

Post registering a dowry harassment complaint, if the police investigation finds evidence of dowry harassment, they will file a charge sheet and the case will be forwarded to the court. The trial will be conducted in accordance with the Criminal Procedure Code and the woman will have the opportunity to present her case and produce witnesses.

Documents Required to File a Complaint

To file a complaint regarding dowry harassment in India, the following documents may be required:

  1. Complaint letter: A written complaint can be filed by the victim or its representative stating the details of the dowry harassment, including the names of the accused individuals, dates, incidents, and any supporting evidence.
  2. Identity proof: A copy of the complainant's identity proof, such as an Aadhaar card, passport, voter ID card, or driver's license.
  3. Address proof: A copy of the complainant's address proof, such as an Aadhaar card, utility bill, rent agreement, or bank statement.
  4. Marriage certificate: A copy of the marriage certificate to establish the relationship between the complainant and the accused parties.
  5. Dowry-related documents: Any relevant documents related to the dowry, such as receipts, bills, or agreements, to establish the existence and value of the dowry given or demanded.
  6. Medical records (if applicable): Medical records are the strongest evidence to prove dowry harassment. If there are instances of physical abuse or injury, medical records or certificates from a doctor or hospital can be submitted as evidence.
  7. Any other evidence: Any other relevant evidence such as audio or video recordings, photographs, or messages that support the complaint and can establish the occurrence of dowry harassment.

How to file a Complaint?

 1. Police Station

To file a dowry harassment complaint at a police station in India, you should start by locating the nearest police station with jurisdiction over the area where the harassment occurred or where you currently reside. It is advisable to have a trusted friend or family member accompany you for support during this process. Once at the police station, explain your situation to the duty officer at the front desk and inform them that you wish to file a complaint regarding dowry harassment. Provide them with all the necessary details, including the names of the accused individuals, dates of incidents, and any supporting evidence you may have.

The duty officer will assist you in registering a First Information Report (FIR), which is an official document that initiates the investigation. It is crucial to ensure that all the relevant details are accurately recorded in the FIR. Request a copy of the FIR for your records. Along with the FIR, submit any supporting documents and evidence you possess, such as marriage certificates, identity proof, address proof, dowry-related documents, medical records (if applicable), and any other evidence that supports your complaint.

After the FIR is registered, the police will assign a unique complaint number. Take note of this number, as it will be necessary for future reference and follow-up on your case. Request the investigating officer to conduct a thorough investigation into the matter, providing them with any additional information or witnesses that can support your case.

Throughout the process, it is important to stay in touch with the investigating officer assigned to your case. Cooperate fully during the investigation, providing any additional information or evidence as requested, and attend any hearings or court proceedings related to your complaint. Retain copies of all the documents you have submitted, as they serve as important records. If needed, seek legal assistance from a lawyer specializing in family or criminal law who can provide guidance, ensure your rights are protected, and represent you effectively during the legal proceedings.

Remember to maintain a record of all communication with the police and any other relevant authorities, and adhere to the legal process, refraining from any actions that may hinder the investigation.

 2. Women Helpline

To file a dowry harassment complaint through a women's helpline in India, you should first locate the nearest women's helpline in your area. Contact them and explain your situation, expressing your intention to file a complaint about dowry harassment which will be followed by providing all the necessary details and evidence. Then, follow the guidance provided by the helpline staff, which may include visiting their center or filling out complaint forms. 

A form will be given to you to file a complaint, submit the completed form along with supporting documents and seek assistance from the helpline staff who can offer support, and counseling, and connect you with legal professionals if needed. Stay in touch with the helpline for updates and follow their instructions throughout the process. 

 3. National Commission for Women

The National Commission for Women (NCW) was established as a statutory body in January 1992 under the National Commission for Women Act, 1990. The commission's primary objectives are to review the constitutional and legal safeguards for women, recommend legislative measures for their improvement, facilitate the resolution of grievances, and provide advice to the government on policies concerning women. In accordance with its mandate, the NCW has taken various initiatives to enhance the status of women and promote their economic empowerment. The commission has conducted visits to all states and union territories (except Lakshadweep) and compiled Gender Profiles to evaluate the status of women and their empowerment. To file a dowry harassment complaint with the National Commission for Women (NCW) in India, you can follow the steps outlined below:

  1. Visit the NCW Website: Access the official website of the National Commission for Women (NCW) to gather information about their complaint filing process and contact details.
  2. Contact the NCW: Reach out to the NCW through the provided contact information, which may include a helpline number or email address. Explain your situation and express your intention to file a dowry harassment complaint.
  3. Follow the Instructions: The NCW staff will guide you on the necessary steps to file your complaint. They may provide you with specific forms to fill out or ask for certain details and supporting documents. 
  4. Fill out the Complaint Form: If required, fill out the complaint form provided by the NCW. Provide all the necessary details regarding the dowry harassment incidents, as well as your personal information. Ensure that you accurately and clearly describe the incidents and include any relevant evidence.
  5. Submit Supporting Documents: Attach any supporting documents and evidence you have, such as marriage certificates, identity proof, address proof, dowry-related documents, medical records (if applicable), and any other evidence that strengthens your complaint. These documents will support your case during the investigation.
  6. Maintain Communication: Stay in touch with the NCW and respond promptly to any communication or requests for further information. Cooperate fully with the officials handling your complaint and provide any additional information or evidence as required.
  7. Seek Legal Assistance, if Necessary: If you encounter any legal complexities or difficulties during the process, consider consulting with a lawyer who specializes in women's rights or family law. They can provide you with guidance, ensure your rights are protected, and represent you effectively if the case progresses legally.

 4. State Commission for Women

The process to file a dowry harassment complaint in the state commission is similar to that of the National Commission. Following are the steps to register a complaint:

  1. Contact the NCW: Get in touch with the NCW through their provided contact information.
  2. Seek Guidance: Explain your situation and express your intention to file a dowry harassment complaint. Seek guidance from the NCW on the necessary steps to proceed.
  3. Fill out the Complaint Form: If required, complete the complaint form provided by the NCW. Include all relevant details and accurately describe the incidents of dowry harassment.
  4. Submit Supporting Documents: Attach any supporting documents and evidence, such as marriage certificates, identity proof, address proof, dowry-related documents, and medical records (if applicable).
  5. Maintain Communication: Stay in touch with the NCW, promptly responding to any requests for further information or cooperation.

 5. Local NGOs

To initiate the process of filing a dowry harassment complaint with a local Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) in India, it is imperative to undertake meticulous research to identify suitable NGOs that specialize in women's rights and specifically address cases related to dowry harassment. This research can be conducted through various means, including online searches, seeking recommendations from trusted sources, or visiting community centers that provide information about local NGOs. Once a suitable NGO is identified, contacting them becomes the next crucial step. This can be accomplished by utilizing the contact information provided by the NGO, such as their phone number or email address. During the initial communication, it is of utmost importance to provide a comprehensive explanation of the dowry harassment circumstances and express the intention to formally file a complaint, seeking the NGO's assistance and guidance throughout the process.

Once contact has been established, it is advisable to actively seek guidance and support from the NGO. The experienced staff members or dedicated volunteers associated with the organization possess valuable knowledge and expertise regarding the specific steps involved in filing a complaint. They can offer vital assistance throughout the process, such as arranging a meeting to discuss the matter in depth or providing the necessary forms and instructions required to facilitate the complaint filing. These resources and guidance provided by the NGO serve to streamline and navigate the complaint-filing process effectively.

Sustaining clear and effective communication with the NGO throughout the complaint-filing process is of paramount importance. Timely and responsive engagement with any requests for additional information or cooperation is highly recommended to facilitate seamless and efficient handling of the complaint. Complete cooperation with the NGO staff is essential, extending full support by promptly providing any supplementary information or assistance they may require to advance the complaint.

In instances where the complaint entails legal complexities or necessitates further legal guidance, it is advisable to seek the expertise of a lawyer who specializes in women's rights or family law. These legal professionals are equipped to offer valuable advice, ensuring the protection of rights and providing representation for the complainant should the case progress to legal proceedings. 


In conclusion, addressing dowry harassment is a crucial issue that requires prompt action and support from various channels. Whether filing a complaint with the police, seeking assistance from the National Commission for Women, or approaching local NGOs, the steps outlined provide a structured approach to tackling dowry harassment. By understanding the legal provisions, gathering necessary documents, and following the prescribed procedures, individuals can take a proactive stance against dowry harassment. It is essential to emphasize the significance of maintaining open communication, cooperating with authorities, and seeking legal guidance when needed. Together, these efforts contribute to promoting gender equality, safeguarding women's rights, and creating a society free from the scourge of dowry harassment.


Is Receiving Dowry a Crime? 

Under the Dowry Prohibition Act, both taking and giving dowry are considered crimes and illegal. If you witness someone involved in the exchange of dowry, you have the right to file a complaint against them. It is important to note that the dowry system is not inherently good, as it can lead to various issues such as financial coercion and gender inequality. However, if dowry is considered a voluntary gift given to the bride by her parents without any pressure or expectations, it may be viewed differently. 

When can a dowry case be filed

There is no particular timeline for filing of dowry case, it can be filed as and when it is demanded. 

Can a Dowry case be filed without evidence

Direct evidence in dowry-related cases can be obtained from statements provided by the victim, her family members, or witnesses who have firsthand knowledge of dowry demands or acceptance. Their testimonies serve as valuable direct evidence in establishing the occurrence of such practices. Both direct evidence in the form of statements and documentary evidence contribute to building a strong case against individuals involved in dowry-related crimes, ensuring that justice is served. 

Can a police file FIR without investigation in 498A? 

Upon lodging a First Information Report (FIR), the police will initially assess whether there is a prima facie case under Section 498A (a provision related to dowry harassment) or any other relevant section. If they find sufficient grounds to proceed with the case, they will initiate an investigation before considering any arrests. In recent times, the police cannot immediately arrest an individual without conducting a proper investigation. The focus is on ensuring a fair and just process, wherein the police evaluate the evidence and conduct necessary inquiries before taking any coercive actions. 

Do I need a lawyer to file a complaint against the dowry? 

Yes, a legal practitioner may help you in fighting your dowry case better and make you aware of your rights. You can find family lawyers at our portal