Lease in India


Rent prices have risen significantly over the last few years because of increased urbanization and population growth, and these increases are often attributed to a growing preference for renting. This lease agreement in India trend is also contributed to by metro-polarization and changing lifestyle patterns among millennials. Leasing of properties is becoming increasingly appealing to the modern generation for several reasons, including the ability to easily relocate due to its flexible living arrangement.

However, the renting culture in India and the recent shift in behavior have also brought their own set of challenges, such as a lack of standardized rental agreements or leave and license agreements. Notarized agreements are often considered to be makeshift arrangements for both landlords and tenants. The failure to register lease agreements often leads to difficulties for both parties.

What is Lease and Its Importance

A lease in India is a legal arrangement between a landlord (lessor) and a tenant (lessee), executed in the form of a lease agreement that outlines the terms and conditions under which the tenant can occupy and use a property owned by the landlord for a specific period. So, when you rent a property, you and your landlord will usually sign an agreement that outlines what each of you is responsible for during the rental period. This agreement typically includes important details like the landlord and tenant's names and addresses, how long the rental period is, how much rent you'll pay, any security deposits required, how you can end the agreement, and what rights and responsibilities you and the landlord have. These agreements can be used for both residential and commercial properties.

Lease Agreements are crucial legal documents that protect the rights and interests of both landlords and tenants. They provide a clear understanding of the terms and conditions of the rental agreement and help prevent misunderstandings and disputes.

For landlords, a lease is essential as it ensures that they receive a regular rental income for the agreed-upon rental period, and also protects the Rights of Landlord. Additionally, a lease can include provisions that outline the tenant's responsibilities, such as maintaining the property, paying utilities, and not engaging in illegal activities. This can help landlords ensure that their property is properly cared for and prevent any potential damage caused by irresponsible tenants.

On the other hand, tenants benefit from leases by providing them with a fixed-term occupancy of the property and protecting their rights. This means that they can live in the property for a set period without worrying about the landlord terminating the tenancy or increasing the rent. This stability can be particularly important for tenants who may not have the financial resources to move frequently or who require a long-term living arrangement. It provides tenants with some protection against eviction. For example, if a tenant has fulfilled all their responsibilities under the lease agreement, such as paying rent on time and maintaining the property, the landlord cannot evict them without cause until the end of the rental period. 

How does a lease work in India?

In India, leasing a property works similarly to other parts of the world, but some unique aspects of Indian law and customs must be considered. When leasing a property in India, the tenant typically pays a security deposit to the landlord as a form of assurance for any damages or unpaid rent at the end of the tenancy period. This deposit is usually refundable at the end of the lease term, provided that the tenant has fulfilled all the obligations under the lease agreement.

The lease agreement in India can be registered with the local government authority, such as the Sub-registrar's Office, to make it a legally binding document. The lease agreement must be drafted by the Indian Registration Act, and it is required to be registered. However, this is not mandatory in all states in India, and the registration process may vary from state to state.

In India, residential leases typically have a duration of 11 months, after which the agreement can be renewed or terminated by either party. This is because if a lease agreement is for 12 months or longer, it needs to be registered, which involves additional legal and administrative processes.

In case of any disputes between the landlord and tenant, the lease agreement can be used as a legal document to resolve the matter. However, if the matter cannot be resolved amicably, legal action can be taken in a court of law. For commercial properties, lease terms are usually longer, and they may vary depending on the type of property and location. Commercial leases may also include additional clauses related to renting escalation, maintenance responsibilities, and the use of the property for specific commercial purposes.

All the disputes related to leasing agreements, including Landlord and Tenants Disputes, are generally resolved through the Rent Control Act and the Model Tenancy Act, of 2021, and there are various legal options available to both landlords and tenants to resolve any disputes that may arise during the tenancy period.

Types of Lease

Several types of leases are commonly used in the real estate industry. The three most common types of leases are:

Fixed-Term Lease:

A fixed-term lease is an agreement between a landlord and a tenant that specifies a set period during which the tenant will occupy the rental property. This type of lease in India typically lasts for 11 months, but it can be stretched for any length of time agreed upon by the landlord and tenant. At the end of the lease term, the tenant must either vacate the property or negotiate a new lease agreement.

Month-to-Month Lease:

A month-to-month lease is an agreement between a landlord and a tenant that automatically renews every month until either party provides notice to terminate the lease. It provides more flexibility for both the landlord and tenant since they can end the lease with just one month's notice.

Commercial Lease:

A commercial lease is a type of lease agreement that is used for commercial properties, such as office buildings, retail spaces, and warehouses. It is usually more complex than a residential lease, as it may involve negotiations over additional expenses like property taxes, utilities, and maintenance costs. Commercial leases may also include clauses related to zoning restrictions and subleasing.

Gross Lease:

A gross lease is a lease agreement in which the tenant pays a fixed amount of rent, and the landlord is responsible for all other expenses related to the property, like insurance, property taxes, and maintenance costs.

Net Lease:

A net lease is a lease agreement in which the tenant is responsible for paying some or all the property expenses, such as property taxes, insurance, and maintenance costs, in addition to the rent.


A sublease is an agreement in which the original tenant leases the rental property to another tenant, known as the subtenant. In this case, the subtenant pays rent to the original tenant, who in turn pays rent to the landlord.

Laws Governing Lease In India

Renting out a property in India is governed by the laws of the state where the property is located as well as the type of lease. Most lease agreements in India, however, contain some key provisions. Below is a list of some of the most important lease laws in India:

The Transfer of Property Act, 1882:

The Transfer of Property Act is a central law that governs the transfer of property in India, including lease agreements. This act defines the rights and obligations of both landlords and tenants and provides guidelines for the registration and enforcement of lease agreements.

The Rent Control Laws:

To regulate the rental market and protect tenants from unfair rent increases and eviction, most Indian states have implemented rent control laws. Although these laws differ from state to state, they generally specify the maximum rent that can be charged for a rental property and offer eviction guidelines for tenants.

The Indian Stamp Act, 1899:

The Indian Stamp Act requires that lease agreements be stamped and registered with the government to be considered legally enforceable. The amount of stamp duty payable on a lease agreement depends on the rental value of the property and the term of the lease.

The Real Estate (Regulation and Development) Act, 2016:

It is a central law that regulates the real estate industry in India, including lease agreements in India. This act requires that all lease agreements be in writing and registered with the government and provides guidelines for resolving disputes between landlords and tenants.

Benefits and Drawbacks of Lease Laws


  1. Protection for tenants: The lease laws in India protect tenants against unfair rent increases, eviction, and other malpractices by landlords.
  2. Standardization of lease agreements: The laws require that lease agreements be in writing and registered with the government, which helps standardize the terms and conditions of rental agreements across the country.
  3. Clarity and transparency: The lease laws provide clarity and transparency regarding the rights and obligations of both landlords and tenants, which helps prevent disputes and misunderstandings.
  4. Legal enforceability: Registered lease agreements are legally enforceable in court, which provides a legal remedy for tenants in case of any breach of the agreement by the landlord.


  1. Complexity: The lease laws in India can be complex and vary from state to state, which can make it difficult for both landlords and tenants to understand their legal rights and obligations.
  2. Lengthy legal procedures: The legal procedures for registering a lease agreement and resolving disputes can be lengthy, which can cause inconvenience to both landlords and tenants.
  3. Rent control: The maximum rent that can be charged for a rental property is often set too low, which can discourage landlords from investing in maintenance and repairs, resulting in a shortage of rental properties.
  4. Limited flexibility: The lease laws in India provide limited flexibility for landlords and tenants to negotiate the terms of the lease agreement, which can make it difficult to tailor the agreement to their specific needs.


The lease agreement is a crucial document in India that helps establish the legal rights and obligations of both the landlord and tenant. It is important for both parties to understand the terms of the agreement and adhere to them to avoid any legal disputes. While the governing lease laws in India offer several benefits to tenants, they can also be complex and rigid, which may limit the flexibility of both landlords and tenants.